Frequently Asked Questions

Foreign trade, also known as international trade, is a kind of exchange of goods or services between countries. Foreign trade plays an active role in the development of the country’s economy as well as the increase in the national product.


Frequently asked questions

What is CMR?

CMR is the Convention of Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road. CMR provisions are applied in the resolution of legal disputes that may arise in road transport. Turkey ratified the said convention with the Council of Ministers Decision dated 2 December 1994 and numbered 94/6322.

What is Foreign Trade?

Foreign trade is the purchase and sale of goods and services between countries. There are two elements of foreign trade. One is import and the other is export. The sale of goods and services to foreign countries is called export. Likewise, purchases of goods and services from another country also constitute imports. This way of shopping in the world is called the global economy.

How is Foreign Trade Done?

It is necessary to deal with the basic functions first about how foreign trade is done. First of all, some conditions need to mature for export, that is, for export.

Export Conditions

– Owning a company,

– Being a member of this association for the title of exporter,

– Familiarity with the foreign market for potential buyers,

– Making the necessary contracts for the realization of foreign trade,

– Preparation of export documents after these contracts,

– Loading and shipping operations for transfer,

– Customs level. Certain conditions must also be met for outsourcing. These conditions are the basic conditions for foreign trade.

Import Conditions

– Carrying out the necessary procedures for obtaining the importer title,

– Market research of the places to be imported,

– Receiving offers from companies and placing orders,

– Preparation of import documents,

– Providing the necessary conditions for transportation,

– We can list the necessary aspects of import in the form of customs, invoicing and goods acceptance.

Foreign trade can be carried out by providing international suppliers, products to be marketed, potential buyers and the applicable international legislation provisions in these transactions.

What is CE Conformity Mark?

It is a Union mark indicating that the products comply with the basic requirements of the relevant directives of the EU and have passed all the necessary conformity assessment activities regarding the products covered by the New Approach Directives in the European Union countries.


Frequently asked questions

What is the responsibility of the carrier due to damage to or loss of property?

The responsibility of the carrier is regulated in the TCC and international agreements.

CMR provisions are applied in road transport, and according to this contract, the carrier is responsible for the partial or complete loss of them and the damage that may arise from the moment they receive the cargo until it is delivered. If the loss, damage or delay is not caused by the fault or negligence of the requestor, the fault of the carrier, but by the instruction given by the requester, a fault specific to the cargo or circumstances that the carrier cannot prevent, the carrier cannot be held responsible.

In cases where there is no provision in this contract and for transports made by other means, the provisions of the TCC are applied. According to the TCC, the carrier is obliged to show the care and attention of a cautious carrier in the loading, stowage, handling and unloading of the goods. The carrier is responsible for the damages that may arise due to the loss or damage of the goods during the period from the moment they are received to the moment they are delivered; unless the loss or damage measures are due to reasons that cannot be avoided even with the care and attention of a carrier.

What are the cases where the carrier is not liable in case of damage or loss?

The cases where the carrier is not responsible are regulated in Article 1063 of the TCC. According to this article,

1. From the dangers and accidents of the sea or other waters suitable for ship operation;

2. War events, disturbances and riots, acts of enemies of the public, orders of the competent authority or quarantine restrictions;

3. From the confiscation decisions of the courts;

4. Strikes, lockouts or other obstacles to work;

5. Acts or omissions of the shipper or the owner of the cargo or its agent or representative;

6. From saving life or property at sea or attempting to save;

7. The carrier is not responsible for its own decrease in volume or weight, or the hidden defects of the goods or the natural type and nature of the goods.

How to object to customs duties?

The issue of how to object to customs duties is regulated in Article 242 of the Customs Law. According to the aforementioned regulation;

The obliged parties may request correction for the customs taxes notified to them, with a petition they will submit to the relevant customs administration within fifteen days from the date of notification.

2. Correction requests are decided by the relevant customs directorate within thirty days and notified to the liable party.

3. Persons may object to the decisions regarding the correction requests, administrative decisions, customs duties and penalties, before the customs directorate to which the customs administration takes the decision within seven days.

4. Objections submitted to the customs directorates shall be decided within thirty days and notified to the relevant person.

5. In cases where the administration where the first decision was taken is the customs directorate, an objection can be lodged against this decision to the Undersecretariat of Customs within fifteen days.

6. The objections submitted to the Undersecretariat of Customs are decided within forty-five days and notified to the relevant person.

7. Appeals may be made to the administrative jurisdictions in the place where the customs directorate or the customs directorate is located, against the decisions of the chief customs directorates and the Undersecretariat of Customs.

What are goods in free circulation?

Without prejudice to the provisions of the international agreements to which Turkey is a party, the goods entering the Customs Territory of Turkey by being subject to the free circulation regime and the goods considered to be of Turkish origin in accordance with the Customs Law No. 4458, regardless of whether the inputs used in the production are domestic or not.

What are the payment methods for foreign trade?

Advance payment

Payment against goods (CAG)

Payment against document (CAD)

Letter of credit

What are the types of imports?

Paid import

Free import

Import by lease

solid import

Temporary import

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